Neonatal Urinary Tract Infection and Renal Nodular Lesion: A Rare Case of Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis

1 day 11 hours ago
Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XPN) is an uncommon variant of chronic pyelonephritis with a poorly understood pathogenesis and a challenging diagnosis. It is rare in pediatric patients, particularly in the neonatal period. We report the case of an 18-day-old female neonate admitted to the emergency room due to macroscopic hematuria and poor feeding. Urinalysis revealed leukocyturia and she was initially admitted under the clinical suspicion of acute pyelonephritis. Renal ultrasound and...
Catarina Granjo Morais

Calcium Selective Channel TRPV6: Structure, Function, and Implications in Health and Disease

4 days 11 hours ago
Calcium-selective channel TRPV6 (Transient Receptor Potential channel family, Vanilloid subfamily member 6) belongs to the TRP family of cation channels and plays critical roles in transcellular calcium (Ca^(2+)) transport, reuptake of Ca^(2+) into cells, and maintaining a local low Ca^(2+) environment for certain biological processes. Recent crystal and cryo-electron microscopy-based structures of TRPV6 have revealed mechanistic insights on how the protein achieves Ca^(2+) selectivity,...
Vinayak Khattar

Validation of the STARZ neonatal acute kidney injury risk stratification score

1 week ago
CONCLUSIONS: To promote the survival of susceptible neonates, early detection and prompt interventional measures based on highly evidenced research is vital. The risk of AKI in admitted neonates can be quantitatively determined by the rapid STARZ scoring system. A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.
Sidharth Kumar Sethi

Inactivated vaccine against Aujeszky's disease

1 week ago
CONCLUSION: To determine colostral immunity in newborn lambs, the method of metabolic status correction was used to vaccinate lambs obtained from immune sheep 4 months after birth. The results showed that lambs obtained from immune sheep had high VNA titers. A sustained immune response in vaccinated animals was obtained after double vaccination.
Zhanat B Kondibaeva

K(V)7.1 channel blockade inhibits neonatal renal autoregulation triggered by a step decrease in arterial pressure

1 week 2 days ago
K(V)7, the voltage-gated potassium channels encoded by KCNQ genes, mediate heterogeneous vascular responses in adult rodents. Postnatal changes in the functional expression of K(V)7 channels have been reported in rodent saphenous arteries, but their physiological function in the neonatal renal vascular bed is unclear. Here, we report that, unlike adult pigs, only KCNQ1 (K(V)7.1) out of the five members of KCNQ genes was detected in neonatal pig renal microvessels. KCNQ1 is present in fetal pig...
Dieniffer Peixoto-Neves

Extended Interval Aminoglycoside Treatment for <em>Klebsiella Pneumoniae</em> Endocarditis in an Extremely Low Birth Weight Neonate

1 week 2 days ago
Infective endocarditis (IE) in neonates is associated with high mortality and incidence has been increasing over the past two decades. The majority of very low birth weight infants will be treated with at least one nephrotoxic medication during their hospital course. Over one-quarter of very low birth weight neonates exposed to gentamicin may develop acute kidney injury (AKI); this is particularly worrisome as AKI is an independent factor associated with increased neonatal mortality and...
Justin Simpkins

Safety and Efficacy of Ketamine-Fentanyl-Dexmedetomidine-Induced Anesthesia and Analgesia in Neonatal and Aged Rats

1 week 6 days ago
The efficiency of many anesthetic regimens is controversial, with side effects especially in the vulnerable children and old population. The study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of low-dose combination of ketamine, fentanyl, and dexmedetomidine (KFD) for anesthesia and analgesia in the neonatal and elderly rats. KFD rapidly induced anesthesia and analgesia in either postnatal days 6 (P6) or 13 months (13M) old rats. Meanwhile, KFD administration had no adverse effects on the...
Xuhui Zhou

Generation of heterozygous PKD1 mutant pigs exhibiting early-onset renal cyst formation

2 weeks 1 day ago
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited kidney disease, manifesting as the progressive development of fluid-filled renal cysts. In approximately half of all patients with ADPKD, end-stage renal disease results in decreased renal function. In this study, we used CRISPR-Cas9 and somatic cell cloning to produce pigs with the unique mutation c.152_153insG (PKD1^(insG/+)). Pathological analysis of founder cloned animals and progeny revealed that PKD1^(insG/+)...
Masahito Watanabe

Immunogenicity of a DNA-Based Sindbis Replicon Expressing Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Nucleoprotein

3 weeks 1 day ago
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) infrequently causes hemorrhagic fever in humans with a case fatality rate of 30%. Currently, there is neither an internationally approved antiviral drug nor a vaccine against the virus. A replicon based on the Sindbis virus vector encoding the complete open reading frame of a CCHFV nucleoprotein from a South African isolate was prepared and investigated as a possible candidate vaccine. The transcription of CCHFV RNA and recombinant protein production...
Thomas Tipih


3 weeks 2 days ago
Hyperuricemia can cause renal damage and acute kidney injury or be secondary to renal failure and reduced excretion. Rasburicase, a recombinant urate oxidase, is a common treatment for hyperuricemia from different etiologies. There are scarce reports on rasburicase treatment for neonatal Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) with hyperuricemia to prevent renal damage secondary to hyperuricemia. Herein we report a case of neonatal AKI with hyperuricemia that was treated with a single dose of rasburicase....
Hadas Shasha-Lavsky


3 weeks 2 days ago
Autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD;OMIM: 267430) is a rare kidney disease secondary to mutations in genes encoding the renin-angiotensin system which have a role in renal tissue development during fetal life and in the maintenance of blood pressure and electrolyte balance. The disease is characterized by oligohydramnios, prematurity, neonatal renal failure, hypotension and abnormalities in cranial bone development. Nearly all affected individuals die either in-utero or within the...
Ruth Schreiber

Elamipretide treatment during pregnancy ameliorates the progression of polycystic kidney disease in maternal and neonatal mice with PKD1 mutations

3 weeks 3 days ago
Pregnancy is proposed to aggravate cyst progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) but Tolvaptan, the only FDA-approved drug for adult ADPKD, is not recommended for pregnant ADPKD patients because of potential fetal harm. Since pregnancy itself may increase the risk for ADPKD progression, we investigated the safety and efficacy of Elamipretide, a mitochondrial-protective tetrapeptide. Elamipretide was found to ameliorate the progression of kidney disease in pregnant...
Nastaran Daneshgar

Apolipoprotein A-I carboxy-terminal domain residues 187-243 are required for adiponectin-induced cholesterol efflux

3 weeks 3 days ago
Adiponectin exerts its atheroprotection by stimulating adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-mediated cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). However, involvement of the apoA-I residues in this process have not been studied. In Tamm-Horsfall 1 (THP-1) macrophages and baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells we assessed adiponectin's potential to restore cholesterol efflux in the presence of apoA-I and ABCA1 mutants, respectively. Adiponectin was unable to restore...
Anouar Hafiane

Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1 Beta Mutation-associated Newborn Onset of Glomerulocystic Kidney Disease: A Case Presentation

3 weeks 6 days ago
Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 beta (HNF1B) are the most commonly identified genetic cause of renal malformations. Heterozygous mutations are associated with renal cysts and diabetes syndrome. Various renal developmental abnormalities and maturity-onset diabetes of the young could be the presenting factors of these mutations. A 10-year-old boy who was evaluated for bilateral cystic kidneys and chronic kidney disease from the newborn period was diagnosed with HNF1B-related...
Nilufer Goknar

Optimizing immunoPET imaging of tumor PD-L1 expression: pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and dosimetric comparisons of <sup>89</sup>Zr-labeled anti-PD-L1 antibody formats

4 weeks ago
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) may help to non-invasively predict and monitor responses to anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 immunotherapies. In this study, we compared the imaging characteristics of three radioligands, derived from the anti-PD-L1 IgG1 C4. In addition to the IgG C4, we produced a fragment antigen-binding (Fab) C4, and a double mutant IgG C4 (H310A/H435Q), with minimal affinity for the murine neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). Methods: The...
Alizee Bouleau

Assessment of initial vancomycin trough levels and risk factors of vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity in neonates

4 weeks 1 day ago
CONCLUSION: Vancomycin dosing in neonates according to the NeoFax did not provide sufficient attainment of target trough levels (10-20 mg/L). However, using the higher dosing range at 15 mg/kg/dose was more likely to reach target levels, with no measured increased risk of nephrotoxicity. Extreme premature neonates, supratherapeutic vancomycin trough levels, hypotension and furosemide use are associated with an increased incidence of vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity.
Tasnim Heider Dawoud